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On February 15, , two days before Mao left for China, he wrote to Stalin to order another planes. From February 16 to March 5, , a mixed Soviet air-defense division, following the request of the PRC government, moved into Shanghai, Nanjing, and Xuzhou, to take responsibility for the air defense of these areas. With the making of the new Sino-Soviet alliance, both Mao and Zhou believed that Communist China now occupied a more powerful position in the face of the long-range American threat.
On March 20, Zhou emphasized in an internal address to cadres of the Foreign Ministry that the Sino-Sovi- et alliance treaty made it less likely that the United States would start a new war of aggression in East Asia. As we shall see, the fact that China had now become a close Soviet ally would lead to further escalation of the Sino-American confrontation. Was the coming of the Korean War in any way related to the Sino-Soviet alliance? Schol- ars have long been unable to answer these questions because of the scarcity of reliable sources.
The only clue was from the memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev, former prime minister of the Soviet Union. About the time I was transferred from the Ukraine to Moscow at the end of , Kim Il Sung arrived with his delegation to hold consul- tation with Stalin. The North Koreans wanted to prod South Korea with the point of a bayonet.
Kim Il Sung said that the first thrust would touch off an internal explosion in South Korea and that the power of the people would prevail. Stalin persuaded Kim Il Sung to think it over again, make some calculations, and then come back with a concrete plan. Kim went home and then returned to Moscow when he had worked everything out.
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He told Stalin he was absolute- ly certain of success. I remember Stalin had his doubts. He feared that the Americans would jump in, but we were inclined to think that if the war were fought swiftly—and Kim Il Sung was sure that it could be won swiftly—then intervention by the USA could be avoided.
Mao Zedong also answered affirmatively. However, since the publication of Khrushchev Remembers in the early s, scholars have had little opportunity to prove or disprove his story.
But Stalin, worried about the Ameri- can reaction, did not agree with him. The victory of the Chinese Communists strongly encouraged Kim to believe that he could make the same thing happen in Korea. He therefore asked Kim to reconsider his plan. Stalin told Chairman Mao that Kim had come to him with the ideas [of the plan] and he asked Kim if there existed any condition unfavorable to his plan, such as whether the Americans would intervene.
He found that Kim was in a high mood. Chairman Mao did not answer immediately. Chairman Mao had anticipated that Kim Il- sung would attack the South no matter what happened. According to Nie Rongzhen, acting general chief of staff of the PLA, the Chinese agreed to this request after discussions between himself and Kim Kwang-hyop.
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On January 19, , Kim asked the Chinese to send these soldiers to Korea with their equipment. These accounts are not totally exclusive, as all agree that the possibility of American military intervention was the focus of the Mao-Stalin discussion. Mao and the CCP leadership did prepare for direct American military intervention in the mainland in the spring and early summer of Convinced now that the prospect of an American invasion of the Chinese mainland no longer existed, CCP leaders concluded that it would take at least five years before the Unit- ed States would be ready to engage in major military operations in East Asia.
In the winter and spring of —, however, the Beijing lead- ership was accelerating the preparations for liberating GMD-con- trolled Taiwan. It was therefore reasonable that Mao did not give Stalin too affirmative an answer on the possibility of American intervention in Korea. In short, the Korean problem was a part of Mao-Stalin meetings. As Kim had been taking Moscow as the main patron for his attack on the South, such a Chinese attitude would not impede his war preparations.
In order to pursue a close strategic relationship with the Soviet Union, the CCP leadership adopted the lean-to-one-side approach.
The high level of unity between Beijing and Moscow in —, however, did not mean an absence of problems. One finds here the early clues of the divergence between Beijing and Moscow during the Korean crisis and, in the long-run, of the process leading to a Sino- Soviet split. In late and early , the Sino-American con- frontation reached a pivotal point. As the PLA mopped up GMD stragglers on the mainland and occupied all important strategic regions except for Tibet and Taiwan, CCP leaders now believed that there was no immediate threat of an American invasion of the Chi- nese mainland.
Sino-American relations, however, continued to dete- riorate at deeper levels. Meanwhile U.reuderanbey.ml
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Combined with the shock wave caused by Soviet explosion of an atomic bomb in summer , these developments changed significantly the strategic balance in the Asian-Pacific area as well as the ways in which Beijing and Washington perceived each other. The Concept of Confronting the U. In the short run, they believed that the United States, restricted by its limit- ed strength and confined by a variety of internal and external prob- lems, was unable to invade the Chinese mainland or to engage in major military operations in East Asia.
Because of the growing international influ- ence of the Chinese revolution, as the CCP leaders perceived it, rev- olutionary movements following the Chinese model would develop in other Asian countries. As a result, a showdown between China and the United States would eventually occur. Mao and the CCP leadership sought by emphasizing the historical significance and international influence of the Chinese revolution and by igniting the anti-American imperialist propaganda to mobilize that support. Correspondingly, in late and early , three ideas appeared consistently in Communist-controlled media in China.
First, all CCP writers emphasized that the victory of the Chinese revolution repre- sented a breakthrough in the struggle against international imperial- ism and would cause a rising tide of revolution in other Asian coun- tries and regions. Last, they stressed that it was the duty of the Chinese people to assist in every way pos- sible those peoples who were striving for their own liberation and independence. While CCP leaders previously had prepared for a direct American invasion of the mainland, now, they viewed Sino-American relations in the much broader perspec- tive of a long-range Chinese-American confrontation in all of East Asia.
As fighting against the GMD forces on the mainland ended, there was no need to continue to maintain such a huge land force. Not surprising at all, when top CCP leaders were considering the demobilization plan, they made another crucial decision in the win- ter and spring of — to establish a national central reserve force with the United States as the perceived primary enemy. After the Second World War, the island was returned to China.
A unified new China would then emerge as a significant actor in East Asia and the world. From the beginning, CCP leaders feared that a hostile America might jeopardize their plans. On June 21, the GMD regime announced a naval blockade of all CCP controlled coastal ports, and GMD air forces started bombing coastal cities, especially important industrial and commercial centers like Shanghai. If Taiwan were not liberated, we would not be able to seize hundreds of thousands of tons of vessels [still controlled by the GMD]. Our coastal and inland water transportation would thus be controlled by foreign merchants.
Liu made it clear to the Soviets that the Chinese Com- munists needed to expand their air and naval forces quickly to make it possible to conduct a successful amphibious campaign against Tai- wan in the near future. In August, a Chinese air force delegation and a naval delegation came to Moscow to discuss with the Soviets the details of Soviet air and naval support to China.
These defeats made CCP leaders aware of the tremendous difficulties involved in attack- ing the offshore islands and Taiwan, and forced Mao and the CCP leadership to change their original schedule for the Taiwan campaign. After three days of bloody fighting, about 10, PLA troops were either destroyed or captured. After fierce fighting, by early next morning, these troops had occupied almost the entire island.
The situation, however, suddenly changed.
The GMD, still in control of the air and the sea, sent in four regiments of troops. Meanwhile, hindered by the changing ocean tide, the PLA was unable to reinforce its troops. They shocked Mao and the CCP lead- ership. While this would inevitably increase the difficulties involved in attacking these islands, it also provided an opportunity for the PLA to eliminate sub- stantial enemy forces by concentrating on these relatively easier tar- gets, and thus creating favorable military and political conditions for the Taiwan campaign in the future.
Accordingly, the deadline for carrying out the Taiwan campaign was postponed several times. On the eve of the outbreak of the Korean War, the CCP leadership had already decided that the Tai- wan campaign would not be implemented until the spring and sum- mer of In a diplomatic sense, Su emphasized, the United States had recognized Taiwan to be part of China and thus had no ground to interfere mil- itarily if the PLA attacked Taiwan.
He believed that the United States needed at least five years to mobilize enough troops to enter a major military confrontation in the Far East. CCP leaders paid heed to both statements. In a report to a conference discussing the Taiwan campaign plan on January 27, , Su Yu was now confident that Washington would not risk a third world war by sending its military forces to protect Taiwan. Ho himself often came to China and spoke fluent Chinese. Taiwan, Indochina, Korea When the French returned to reestablish control, Ho and his cohorts moved to mountainous areas to fight for independence with little outside assistance between and early The Chinese Communist victory in offered Vietnamese Communists backing.
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Both sides were eager to establish close coop- eration. In late , the Indochina Communist Party sent Hoang Van Hoan, a member of its central committee, to China to strengthen ties between the two parties. His task in Vietnam was to establish good communications between the two parties as well as to provide the CCP Central Com- mittee with first-hand information on how to assist the Vietnamese Communists in their struggle for independence. He was therefore reluctant to commit the strength of the Soviet Union directly to the Vietnamese Communists and turned Ho to the Chinese.